Complete history and chronology of Sin Moo Hapkido
Sin Moo Hapkido
HISTORY OF SINMOO HAPKIDO
Controversy surrounds the history of Korean Hapkido. There is constant disagreement surrounding the origins of the art and the art and the curriculum upon which it is based. There is no doubt however, as to the origins and lineage of Sinmoo Hapkido. the art begins with Doju Ji Han-Jae and the curriculum he began teaching in 1984 in San Francisco, California. Ji gives credit to his three teachers and freely shares what he learned from each of them. The combination of what he took from these three individuals is a unique and what he chose to bring together and teach is the art of Sinmoo Hapkido.
CREATION: (1936- 1959)
Ji Han-Jae was born in Andong, Korea to Ji Sung-Tae and kwon Pun-Nan on August 15, 1936 according to the moon calendar. Because of high infant mortality rates, children were often not registered until months or even years after their actual date of birth. Jis parents registered his official recognized birthday as October 27th. the first 100 days were often the most dangerous and in Korea they celebrate the 100-Day Birthday to mark this significant milestone. It is also when a child turns 1 year old, as they have also survived for 9 months with their mother. While Ji was still an infant his family moved to Sun Yang, Manchuko, what is now modern China.
While in school, Ji began his formal martial arts training as various instructors and Taoist Monks would pass through the towns and teach the children. he attended school in Sung Yang, under the Japanese education system where he learned Chinese and Japanese. Following the end of World War II and before the outbreak of the Chinese Civil War, Jis family returned to Andong.
He began his formal martial arts training in Yawara a few years later with Choi Yong-Sul at the age of 13. He was in Taegu attending High School and was one of the first students. He eventually earned a black belt thug was considered a junior student because of his young age. The techniques he learned at this time were primarily joint locks, throws, low kicks, and sword techniques. Choi did not have a school and only taught private lessons. Ji would train with Choi everyday before and after school, and on the days he did not have school (or skipped school), he was there all day. During the off-school months, he was also there all day.
Ji was studying architecture and engineering in school, and for part of this time he was living in a house he had built himself. Following his graduation he worked for 10 months as an architect for Taegu City Hall. He trained full time with Choi until 1957 when he moved from his home city of Andong to Seoul.
When Ji was eighteen, he began his training with Master Lee. When Ji first arrived in the United States he referred to Master Lee as Taoist Lee because it was the closest word he could find to describe Lee since Samrangdo was, and still is, relatively unknown. Jis training under Lee involved many hours in mediation, the use of the Jang-Bong (6 staff), and in Korea Tack-Kyun or Tek Gi gun, kicking. Many of the drills that Ji was doing at this time are similar to plyometrics used in sports today.
In addition to the martial aspects of training, Lee also began Ji on his mental and spiritual journey. He trained him in numerous meditation and breathing exercises. most of these exercises were Ki developed exercises with many similarities to Taoist Inner Alchemy practices. Ji would train with Master Lee for months at a time, and then Lee would leave and give Ji projects to practice while he was away. Most of these projects would either be physical or meditation techniques that Ji would spend hours practicing on his own. He trained with Lee for almost five years after which he continued his training with Lees instructor, Grandma.
Ji opened a school in Andong in 1956 and called it An Moo Kwon and taught Yu Kwon Sool. It was during this time that Ji put many of his techniques to the test. After long days of training, he would travel to known gang areas and would invariably have someone or more often, a group, attack him. He said that when he was in his early twenties, if he did not fight two or three times a day, he could not sleep at night.
Ji moved to Seoul in September of 1957 leaving his school to student Yu Yong-Wu. He opened a school and called it Dae Han Hapki Yu Kwon Sool. After moving his school in 1958, and continuing to modify what he was teaching in order to combine what he was learned from his three teachers, Ji eventually developed a unique style which he called, Hapkido.
With his unique of techniques and philosophy, Ji spent much of 1960 and 1961 refining the curriculum he would go on to teach. In 1961, he and Kim Moo-Hong sent nearly 8 months finalizing the kicking curriculum. Ji fit this in with his mental and spiritual training he had learned from Lee.
In May 1961 General Park Chung-Hee became the Korean President after his military coup overthrew the government. Ji moved to Kwan Chul Dong and was teaching at the Korea Military Academy in addition to running his own dojang. He had established a reputation and his Sung Moo Kwon organization had nearly 500 students. Soon after he was hired to teach presidential security forces at President Parks Residence, the Blue House.
Ji became politically powerful with his government position and was able to expand his hapkido organization. While working at the Blue House, Ji spearheaded a number of attempts to unify the hapkido organizations that had sprung up in South Korea.
In 1963, Ji Han-Jae, Choi Yong-Sul, and Kwon Jang began drafting a constitution for the Korea Kido Association. During the turmoil of Parks rise to power, books and other goods were smuggled into Korea. JI found a book on Japanese Aikido and saw that the Chinese characters for Aikido were the same as for Hapkido. Discouraged that a Japanese art had the same name as Hapkido, he decided to drop the Hap from its name, calling his art simply, Kido. The group decided on Kido because it did not have the Japanese association.
Many of Jis top Sung Moo Kwan students did not want to change the name of Kido, and in 1965, Ji Han-Jae left the Korea Kido Association and established the Korea Hapkido Association with the assistance of his students and blessing of President Park. His students continued to call their martial art Hapkido, and continued to teach it the way they learned it. Ji had also become a powerful person in the government due to his instructor position. In 1973, by merging his Korea Hapkido Association, Kim Moo-Hongs Korean Hapkido Association and Myung Jae-Nams Korean Hapki Association, they formed the Republic of Korea Association. Choi Dae-Hoon was elected president and Ji was senior vice president.
In 1969, Ji first came to the United States as part of an exchange with President Richard Nixons security forces. He taught Hapkido to the US Secret Service, Special Forces, OSI, FBI, and CIA. While he was visiting and staying at Andrews Air Force Base, his good friend, Taekwondo Grandmaster Jhoon Rhee, introduced Ji to Bruce Lee. Lee was impressed with Jis techniques and asked him to teach him and to exchange ideas in Hong Kong.
Ji traveled throughout Asia at this time through he spent most of his time in Hong Kong at Bruce Lees urging, to work in the movie industry. He was hired by Golden harvest to help choreograph martial arts movies and also star in a few of them. He spent some of this time working in Hong Kong, but also did much of the training and filming in Korea from 1972 to 1975 . At this time, Ji taught movie stars and martial arts masters such as Kim Jin-Pal, Hwang In-Shik, Angela Mao Ying, Samo Hung, as well as Bruce Lee and many others. A member of these stars actually came to the Korea Hapkido Association Headquarters to train with Ji in 1972.
Through only a small film carrier, Ji appeared in at least four movies at the time: Hapkido , Fist of the Unicorn Palm, The Dragon Tamers, and Bruce Lees Game of Death. Probably Jis most famous role is in Bruce Lees Game of Death. Lee trained under Ji for a short time while he was in Hong Kong working for Golden Harvest. Ji worked for many hours with Lee and the other actors, and at one point helped Lee with a back injury that had been bothering him for some time. Unfortunately, Lee passed away on July 20, 1973 during the middle of filming. In the movie, Ji wore a gold belt that was given to him by lee to represent the highest level of martial arts. Ji was also the only character not killed by Bruce Lee in the movie. JI would not allow it since he said that Lee would never be able to beat him in real life. He is the only injured at the end of their fight and can be seen rolling around on the ground following the altercation.
On October 26th, Kim Jae-Kyu, the head of the Korean CIA, assassinated President Park Chung-Hee at the Blue house. Kim and the other conspirators also killed Parks chief bodyguard, driver, and two other members of his security detail. By 4:00am on October 27th when it was confirmed Park was dead, martial law was imposed on the entire country. Troops were deployed throughout the county.
The infighting within the government and military, which at this time had almost complete control over the country, lead many officials who were close to Park to resign following the assassination. Amidst all the chaos, Ji resigned his position. Many of those individuals who resigned were arrested and some were executed as political turmoil grew. Because of Jis position of power in the government he became a target amidst the ensuring disorder.
With the turbulence following Parks assassination, Ji found himself in the midst of a political power struggle. Because of his government involvement, with the political change in 1980, Ji and his organization were brought up on charges of tax fraud and Ji sentenced to a one-year prison term.
While in prison, Ji was able to practice meditation techniques for many hours. He also was for the first time exposed to the Bible. It was the only book allowed at the prison, and had both English and Korean language. Reading it over, and over again, Ji found many similarities in stores from his previous training regarding philosophy, Ki, and meditation. Confirming many of his ideas, Ji would later use Biblical stories to help teach western students, knowing most are more familiar with Christian teachings rather than Taoist, Buddhist, or Confucian philosophies.
Ji served 10 months in prison. After his release he remained in Korea and worked Hanul Gyo Temple in Hyoja Dong, for a religious leader Shin Jung-II was a bodyguard also served as an advisor. During this time, Master Merrill Jung and members of the Northern California Hapkido Association were able to track Ji down and organize a training trip. Jung had met Ji in 1972 when he traveled to Korea to train at the Korea Hapkido Association Headquarters. Jung and his students were able to encourage Ji to begin teaching again and with their help, Ji formed the Korea Sin Moo Hapkido Association. Ji knew he wanted to leave Korea but was unable to get a passport to the United States. With the help of Jung and his students, he was able to get a visa to West Germany, and from there they would bring him to the United States.
He traveled to Offenbach, West Germany and stayed at the house of Song I11-Hak, a pioneer of Hapkido in Germany. While there, he taught at the International Martial Arts Gymnasium. Though he had a small Korean community, he did not speak any German and soon realized that teaching Hapkido in Germany would be very different than he had hoped. He became disillusioned, but fortunately this was only a temporary stop while Jung and his students helped organize a visa to bring to the United States.
After only three months in West Germany, master Jung, with the help of his students such as Stuart Forrest and Bob Wixten, brought Ji to the United States. Ji became to travel around the US in order to set up and expand the new Korea Sin Moo Hapkido Association.
When JI first arrived, he taught some classes out of a YMCA for Master Jung. He lived with Jung for the first ten months he was in the Bay Area. Some students at that time were Stuart Forrest, Bill Ong, Rufo Mangonon, Gary Weaver, Dick Tom, Charley Newlun, and Larry Doresy. Ji traveled quite a bit in the initial months of his arrival as many of his early students wanted to see him. He also did a number of demonstrations and Tv appearances, mostly in California.
Ji opened the first Sinmoo Hapkido Dojang on Mission St. in Daily City in June of 1984 after taking over from Taekwondo Master Shin Dong-Ee. Some students at this time were Jung, Francisco Abungan, Yung Freda, Sinoe Era, Greg Levin, Nassar Sharabianlou, and Glenn Uesugi. Some of Jungs students also attend classes at this dojang.
Ji opened his second school in early 1986 at 731 Kains Ave in San Bruno, CA, which was run with the assistance of his, ex-wife Debbie. Ji taught meditation classes in the morning to a few students. Master Jung assisted and taught some childrens classes during the day. Ji taught classes every day to a small group of students and Freda was the primary instructor in the evenings. Some would come and go, but a few were there every day. Some would come and go, but a few were there every day. Some students at this time were, Era, Freda, Levin, Abungan, Sharabianlou, Uesugi, Frank Croaro, Mike Agoff, and a number of others. Again, a number of students came and went, but a few continued to the higher ranks. On April 4, 1987 Ji introduced the Sinmoo Hapkido revival techniques from various injuries that can occur in the dojang. Ji was adamant that an instructor should not have their own school if they do not know these important techniques.
After about 2 years, this school closed down. JI taught a few classes at a dance school in Palo Alto and some lessons in Millbrae, But neither of these locations lasted very long. He had a fair number of students from Stanford at the time, following a demonstration, but none of them stayed for long.
In 1987 Dr. He Young Kimm, moved from his home in Baton Rouge, LA to California after his father-in-law became ill. Kimm would stay in California until 1990 and was give the responsibility of writing a comprehensive book on Hapkido. Ji gave Kimm a pile of notes with over 1200 techniques and information for Kimm to sift through and organize. he spent a number of hours with Ji diligently taking notes and taping material for what he would eventually compile into what is known as the Hapkido Bible, but was published as Hapkido.
After Jis San Bruno Dojang closed in 1989, his focus shifted from teaching regularly to spreading Sinmoo Hpkido worldwide and focusing his teaching on martial artists who already had attained either master or instructor rank. Though Ji already had a number of students with previous martial arts experience, he began to offer 5 and 10-day instructor seminars that were designed as a crash-course in Sinmoo Hapkido. These classes gave a rapid overview of the curriculum from which instructors could add to whatever art they were already teaching
Over approximately the next 6 years, Ji had school sand taught some classes in San Francisco, Pacific Grove, Monterey, and also one in Levittown, PA for a short time. The classes were either in small basement spaces, garages, in one of his very large dojangs that had at various times, but more commonly, out of one of his students schools. One of the largest schools was in Pacific Grove, where Ji held a number of these large seminars.
Most of these instructor events took place in the Bay Area in California, But a few were instructed in different parts of the country and around the world. In 1995 Ji began to travel extensively beginning with his first return to Europe since his stop in 1983. Freda would often assist him on these international trips, and Levin would also travel with him on some of his trips to the East Coast. Ji would teach a number of seminars in Europe including, Ireland, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Spain, and Finland.
In 1997 Ji, moved to the East Coast and began teaching weekly seminars in Voorhees, NJ at Ken macKenzies dojang. Ji would also teach instructor classes for John Godwin in Delaware beginning the following year. The New Jersey dojang would become the headquarters school for the World Sin Moo Hapkido Federation that he and MacKenzie form the following year.
In April 1999, MacKenzie hosted an International Instructors Seminar. A six-day instructor event, taught by Ji who was assisted by Freda, was attended by instructors from around the world and culminated with a presentation by Dr. He Young Kimm on Hapkidos history and a banquet celebrating Jis 50 years in the martial arts.
Because of the rapid worldwide expansion of Sinmoo Hapkido over its first fifteen years, Ji decided to change the name of the original Korea Sin Moo Hapkido Association to the World Sin Moo Hapkido Association. This new association was supposed to usher in a new era for the art with a change in uniforms, belts, rank certificates. Ji also began production and marketing of an official video series with Tang Soo Do Master Ed Samane. The material was supposed to be released. Though a large portion of the material in Sinmoo Hapkido was covered, Ji was impatient with the progress, left out of the editing phase, and most techniques were only shot once. Also, due to an injury, Ji was unable to demonstrate the vast kicking and various other techniques for the video production.
In 2001 Ji opened a small dojang in a Korean church on Willow Ave in Elkins Park, PA. The majority of the students were children and teens that were members of the church. Businessman David Suh, who had a background in Judo assisted with some of the classes. This became the headquarters dojang for the art for about a year.
In August of 2002 JI traveled to Korea for a conference with top Hapkido practitioners with the purpose of creating a unified Worldwide Hapkido Organization. Such notable instructors as Soo Bok-Suh, Seo In-Sun, and many others attended this event. A large seminar , instructor training, and demonstrations were scheduled where Ji was to be assisted by Scott Yates, Sean Bradley, and John Lee. Torrential rains and heavy flooding throughout Korea caused the event to be cancelled.
Later that year, in October, Ji returned to Korea with some of his senior students. The objective of the tip was to form the World Hapkido Association with the aid of Dr. Lo Young-Chul and Mr. David Suh with the backing of the South Korean government and to showcase Sinmoo Hapkido to Korea. Unfortunately, much of the financial backing had been lost after the events in August, and the organization never took off as planed.
From 2002 to 2006 Ji limited his travel to Europe amidst conflict with senior European student, Juerg Ziegler. With only one seminar in Spain in March 2003, Ji shifted his force to the Western Hemisphere and taught only US and taught seminars in Florida, Colorado, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, New Jersey, Connecticut, Texas, Georgia, and Washington. He also taught Sinmoo Hapkido seminars in Mexico, Canada, and into South America to Columbia, Argentina, and Ecuador.
In 2006 Ji celebrated his 70th Birthday. His first big celebration was marked by his return to Europe. After first holding a short seminar in France with Master Nicolas Tacchi, he then travelled to Valencia, Spain on June 11th. The European Sinmoo Hapkido Association under Rafael Balbastrae and Juerg Zierler hosted the event. Students from all over Europe came to celebrate this occasion and it was marked by one-day seminar and banquet.
The celebration then moved to the United States on the East Coast with the newly formed North America Sinmoo Hapkido Federation. Hosted by MacKenzie and his right-hand man, Scott Yates, the First Hapkido Summit was held from october 23rd to October 28th and featured a 5-day seminar fought by Ji and featured guest instructors such as, Founder of Hanmudo and culminated with a birthday celebration banquet with representatives from 11 different countries and over 20 masters in attendance.
The final birthday celebration brought Ji back to the Sinmoo Hapkido roots where it all began, San Francisco. Hosted by his senior Sinmoo student Merrill Jung and assisted by Stuart Forrest and Rich Goldstein of the World Martial arts Union, a banquet with over 200 guts was held at the Four Seas Restaurant in San Franciscos famous Chinatown. It was a meeting of new and old Sinmoo Hapkido students and instructors.
From 2006 until 2010, JI continued to travel and teach around the world. He was still teaches regular classes in Delaware for John Godwin, and occasional classes in New Jersey and Pennsylvania for Ken MacKenzie, Ian Cyrus, and a handful of other instructors in the area. In December 2006 he traveled for the first time to Africa, teaching a seminar in Nouakchott, Mauritania, with the assistance of Taekwondo Grandmaster Shin and Bradley. In November 2009 he traveled to the Middle East for the first time. With Ghorbani and Azad, Ji tought a series of classes in Iran where he was welcomed as an international celebrity. In addition, he traveled the United States and fought seminars in Georgia, New York, Washington, and California. Internationally, he fought in Mexico, Finland, Belgium, Switzerland, Latvia, Ireland, France, and Brazil.
On April 8, 2009, Ji was honored at a 25th Anniversary Celbration of SInmoo Hapkido that took place in Foster City, California. Organized by the Sinmoo Hapkido Legacy Group, this event session by senior masters from all over the world and culminated with a teaching session on philosophy and meditation. Not only the 25th Anniversary of Sinmoo Hapkido, but 2009 also marked Jis 60 years of formal involvement in the martial arts! In December 2009, Ji was honored as Black Belt Magazines Man of the Year, for all of his contributions to the martial arts. Ji plans to semi-retire from teaching in 2010, though he has said this many time before.
On January 8, 2010, Ji was honored by the Action Martial Arts Magazine at the Tropicana Hotel and Casino in Atlanta City as a Hall of Fame member. With almost 1500 attendees, some of Jis students, Ziegler, MacKenzie, Godwin, Yates and Zmugg, fought seminars to showcase Sinmoo Hapkido.
On January 13th, Ji returned to Korea to teach for the first time since leaving in 1983. Organized by Kim Nam-Jae and the Korea Hapkido Federation, Ji taught a two-day seminar at Sun Moon University in Cheonan. After a meeting with senior students such as Hwang Doel-Kyu, and Kim Nam-Jae, Ji, with the assistance of Bradley, taught to over 70 black belts and masters where he taught a second seminar, hosted by Kim Nam-Gyo, to the instructors on Jeju Island. Ji returned to Seoul and met with senior students to once again discuss the future of Hapkido.
THE ART OF SINMOO HAPKIDO
Sinmoo Hapkido is an art that encompasses physical, mental and spiritual training. The art is not only a practical and effective form of self-defense, but also a way of life for many of its practitioners. This is evident when first looking at the words that make up the name of the art.
Taking the last three words first, Hapkido is commonly translated as the way of coordinated power. Through an accurate translation in other countries, the intended meaning is more precise.
Hap means to bring tougher, to combine, or to harmonize. Ki refers to the energy that connects the mind and the body. Ki has a number of translations, such as vapor, breath, and energy, but can be understood in this communication through all of us.
De also has a wide range of meanings and again, is largely dependent on context. Whereas it often refers to a path or way, it is more appropriate here to think of it as an ongoing process or state of being.
Therefore, Hapkido means, the process of bringing together of the mind and body or the state of mind and body being in harmony. This already points to the depth of the art, but the first two words further illustrate the exact intended.
Sinmoo is most often translated as higher mind martial art. Moo or Mu is rather straightforward and means martial art or martial method. The concept of sin on the other hand in rather complicated. Simply, it could mean higher mind, but can on the also mean god or god-like. Sin is pronounced shēn, in Chinese and is most often the same character (shown on the right) that is used in Chinese Medicine to represent the Heart Spirit. In addition, the Hanja character also often means ghost or spirit in a paranormal sense.
Dojunim originally used the more common character for sin when writing Sinmoo Hapkido in Hanja as evidence in early black belt rank certificates. With such a varied interpretation and possible translations of this charter, in 2000, Dojunim decided to switch to an ancient and rarely used charter. He did so for two reasons. The first is to clarify the meaning and distance the art from mystical and religious correlations. The second reason was to give greater historical context. The character now used is one that dates back to almost 200 years and can be found in the Korean Text, Samilsingo. As one of the foundational texts for the philosophy of Sinmoo Hapkido, Dojunim felt it better captured the meaning that he was looking for in describing his art. The intended meaning of sin is easiest to understand as a higher more enlightened state of existence.
The use of sin in Sinmoo Hapkido represents a shift in emphasis from the physical aspects of training to the spiritual, mental, and philosophical side of the art in addition to the training. This change has put weight on the important non-physical training that Dojunim felt was often neglected in traditional Hapkido training. By putting such a weight on the non-physical training, Sinmoo Hapkido allows for better communication between the mind and body by balancing the three aspects of oneself, mind, ki, and body, and ensuring that all parts are being addressed.
When taken in its entirety, Sinmoo Hapkido means, reaching a higher state of existence in martial arts through the process of bringing together of the mind and the body.
SINMOO HAPKIDO PHILOSOPHY
Sinmoo Hapkido draws the majority of its pHilosophy from three sources. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Korean Zen (Seon) are the primary sources of the philosophy of Sinmoo Hapkido through elements of Taoism, Christianity, native Korean religions and philosophies, modern science, and oriental medicine all play an important part. These three core pillars serve as the basis of understanding the development of mind, body, and ki in this martial art.
It is important to note, that although these foundations serve as religions for millions around the world, the teachings used to form the basis of Sinmoo Hapkido are secular and not religious. There are no worship components, and ones religious views are their own as that is a personal choice not to be influenced by the dojang. Though some of the terminology used at times is similar to certain religions, it is used only to serve as familiar examples in teaching martial arts concepts and not to promote or dispute certain religious ideologies.
Sinmoo Hapkido has a deep philosophical base that students can take from it what they wish. Some of the philosophy of Sinmoo Hapkido is straightforward whereas other pieces are rather obscure and difficult to understand. Often these obscure pieces require the student to practice techniques for an extend period of time before experiences bring to light the understanding.
The three parts of a person are most often broken up into mind, body, and spirit in Western thought. As mentioned earlier, although this is not the best designation, we will use these for ease and comparison to make sense of these concepts. there are six pieces for each of these under the respective philosophies.
Confucian teaching came to Korea fromChina during the Three Kingdom Period (57 to 668 CE) and was primarily adopted in the Baekje Kingdom, though the Silla and Gogooryo Kingdoms later adopted it as well. In Sinmoo Hapkido Confucian teachings are associated with the body and physical training of a practitioner. This involves descipline in training, hierarchical organization of rank, relationships of students and teachers, general diet and lifestyle, and motet importantly, the concept of moderation.
The most important aspects that must be controlled in Sinmoo Hapkido from a physical standpoint are the senses. The eyes, ears, nose, mouth, genitals, and skin, all give us a sensory input. It is up to the individual to interpret this input and moderate these senses so that they do not control us.
Buddhism was introduced to Korea in the 4th Century CE, and developed into a unique form that combines pieces of the traditional shamatic teachings with Buddhist tonight. Much of the Buddhist teachings that serve as the foundation in Sinmoo Hapkido are attributed to Won-Hyo, a famous Korean Monk and later scholar who taught that Buddhist teaching all had to do with the mind. In Sinmoo Hapkido, mind training comes in the form of controlling ones emotions. Keeping to the Confusion teaching, nothing in excess, controlling emotions means letting the emotions of joy, anger, fear, sadness, greed, and laziness come up when appropriate, but be sure to not let them overwhelm and control ones life.
KOREAN SEN (SEON)
Korean Zen or Seon is actually a form of Buddhism that stems from the Chan tradition in China. This form of Buddhism modifies teachings and Taoist concepts. This is the ki development aspect of Sinmoo Hapkido, but primarily focuses on breath training. The emphasis here is experience, and the easiest method for that is meditation and breathing. Dojunim says, Proper breathing is proper meditation. The Seon tradition focuses on sitting in meditation, and in Sinmoo Hapkido, the focus is the same. In order to pay attention to the breath, six odors must be limited to ensure that we experience the breath to its fullest. Fragrant, Rotten, Cold, Hot, Dry, and Damp air, all must be limited through long, slow, mindful breathing. By doing there is free flow of communication between mind and body and are truly able to experience breathing.
Founder: Ji Han Jae
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